Single-Phase Immersion Cooling: The Path to 1000W TDP & Beyond 

Intel and Submer’s Forced Convection Heat Sink (FCHS)

Written by

Published on

Back to resources
A deep dive into the Forced Convection Heat Sink.

Through innovative engineering and science from our collaboration with Intel, single-phase immersion cooling will now be a competitive cooling solution for higher TDP systems.  

The introduction of the Forced Convection Heat Sink (FCHS) marks the initial milestone on the path toward effectively cooling Intel silicon exceeding 1000W. This technological breakthrough stands to substantially reduce the quantity and costs of server components that deal with heat capture and dissipation, setting single-phase immersion cooling apart as a frontrunner among competitive liquid cooling technologies. 

Moving From Natural to Forced Convection  

Natural convection stands as the primary mechanism governing heat transfer within an immersion tank. However, significantly increasing flow rates at the point of injection into the tank yields a marginal enhancement with little impact on CPU and GPU temperatures. The effect of flow rates on the case temperature of the CPU (modeled via Intel TTV) is shown below.  

Effect of flow rate on Case Temperature
Effect of flow rate on Case Temperature

The following can be interpreted from the above graph: 

  • Server level flow rate had little effect on TTV temperature/theta  
  • Fluid takes the path of least resistance i.e., avoiding going between the fins of the heatsink 
  • True for both 1U air heatsink and immersion-optimized heatsink  

When coupled with immersion-optimized heat sinks, natural convection has proved the ability to cool CPUs in the 400W power range. Nevertheless, as TDP levels surpass this threshold, novel methods for enhancing the flow of dielectric fluid through the heat sinks become imperative.  

Over the past year, we have been diligently striving to comprehend the implications and to devise cost-effective means to achieve this acceleration, with the ultimate goal of supporting TDPs exceeding 1000W. The initial milestone in this journey is the development of the Forced Convection Heat Sink (FCHS). 

The Forced Convection Heat Sink (FCHS) 

The Forced Convection Heat Sink (FCHS) is an innovative heat sink attachment designed for use in immersion cooling systems. It combines the heat transfer efficiency of forced convection with the resiliency of passive cooling. The FCHS attachment for immersion-optimized heat sinks integrates propellers for localized forced convection as illustrated below.  

Intel and Submer illuminate the path to cooling 1000W TDP.
Forced Convection Heat Sink (FCHS)

Discover More in Our Case Study With Intel

This case study covers: 

  • The main benefits of the FCHS package 
  • The testing process of this technology and the results obtained 
  • The real-world cooling of an overclocked Intel® Xeon® processor 
  • How Submer and Intel plan to push the convergence of cutting-edge materials, advanced fluid dynamics, and innovative engineering strategies. 
  • The next steps in the FCHS roadmap and beyond 

For a deep understanding of how this cutting-edge technology works and what it means for the industry, download the free case study by filling in the form below.  

Stay in the Submer Loop

Subscribe to our customized & conscious newsletter.

Share this post

Keep exploring related content