FAQ

There are different types of liquid cooling, but there is only one Submer Immersion Cooling. Innovation and evolution happen through education. Here you will find some of the most common questions regarding immersion cooling and our technology.

What is Immersion Cooling?

Also known as liquid submersion cooling, it is the practice of submerging computer components (or full servers) in a thermally, but not electrically conductive liquid (dielectric coolant).

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Is Immersion Cooling more efficient than air cooling?

Yes. As Immersion Cooling uses a thermally conductive liquid, it is ca. 1400 time more efficient than air cooling at transporting heat.

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What kind of liquid does Submer use?

Submer uses their own in-house developed synthetic dielectric fluid (SmartCoolant) which does not conduct electricty, but is extremely efficient at dissipating heat and protects hardware from dust/sand particles and from moisture.

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How often does the fluid (SmartCoolant) need to be changed?

With a lifespan of 15-20 years, Submer’s SmartCoolant is designed to see multiplegenerations of IT Hardware.

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Does SmartCoolant evaporate?

No. Submer's SmartCoolant does not evaporate at room or at operating temperatures.

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Is Submer's SmartCoolant harmful?

No. SmartCoolant is non-toxic, biodegradable, innocuous to hardware and is classified as a food-grade fluid.

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Is Submer's SmartCoolant harmful to the It Hardware?

No. On the contrary, it protects it from external elements such as moisture, dust/sand particles and extends its lifespan while reducing IT Hardware failures.

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What is the PUE of a datacenter?

Power usage effectiveness (PUE) is a ratio that describes how efficiently a computer data center uses energy; specifically, how much energy is used by the computing equipment (in contrast to cooling and other overhead).

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What is the Critical Load of a datacenter?

Critical IT load is the total power required by servers, storage, network and other devices in the data centre that must keep running if there is a loss of utility power. It doesn’t include the load due to mechanical systems, lighting and other requirements.

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What is the lifespan of the SmartCoolant? How long did you test it?

The lifespan of the SmartCoolant is 10-12 years. We have done accelerated aging tests at higher temperatures to assure that our fluid can serve you long time.

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Do you already have installations? Who are your customers?

Yes, we have installations all over the world. For instance, here in Barcelona we work with BSC (Barcelona Super Computer). In Europe we also work with JRC, CERN, Airbus.

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What is Submer's production capacity?

Submer's Barcelona facility can produce up to 10,000 SmartPods a year and Submer's US facility can also produce up to 10,000 SmartPods a year.

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Is there a SmartPod adapted to cryptomining?

Yes. You can submerged harwares such as ASICs, FPGAs and GPUs. We can accomodate a wide range of form factors.

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Would an embedded heat exchanger be a problem for heat reuse?

No this is not a problem. The heat exchanger is connected to an external water loop which would then be connected to a heat pump to achieve heat reuse.

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Isn't the price too high for a rack?

No this is not too high as our solution is not only a horizontal rack, but as well the whole primary cooling system. It embeds a heat exchanger and a redundant pumping system, and comes with our non-evaporative dielectric fluid which has a lifespan of 20 years. This is a smart and fully-automated system, and the most advanced and innovative on the market.

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How do I perform maintenance on my servers?

The equipment comes with two maintenance rails. Take the server out of the fluid with gloves as it can be a little slippery, place it on the rails, remove/replace the damaged parts and replace it into the fluid. If you need to send the server for bigger maintenance, we will provide you with another fluid that cleans our SmartCoolant.

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Do you have certifications?

Yes, our main certifications are: CE, UL, ISO and IP65.

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What kind of hardware can be submerged in Submer's Immersion Cooling solution?

Any kind of electronic hardware can be submerged - Servers, switches, measurement equipment, GPUs, CPUs, ASICs, power-supplies etc.

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Does hardware need modification before being submerged?

Many manufacturers provide hardware ready for Immersion Cooling (2CRSI, Fujitsu, Gigabyte, Supermicro - contact Submer for specific model information) but you can submerge any hardware with only slight modifications:

  • remove fans and prevent the hardware from requiring them (this saves 15-25% of the overall energy consumption and eliminates a potential source of failure).
  • standard spinning disks should be replaced with solid-state drives (SSD, NVMe or Flash) OR helium sealed drives.
  • In some instances Submer recommends replacing thermal paste with Liquid Immersion Cooling compatible paste or indium foil.


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What electricity supply do SmartPods need?

Submer advocates the use of three-phase power supplies as they are more efficient.

Depending on deployment geography, Submer's SmartPods require:

  • EU - 3P+N+E 380-400V 50Hz
  • US - 3P+N+E 208-415V 60Hz
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How much electricity does each SmartPod consume?

Each SmartPodX and SmartPodXL with one CDU consumes ca. 400W/h while disappating 50kW of heat.

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What storage media can be submerged in Submer's Immersion Cooling solution?

Solid-state drives (SSD, NVMe or Flash) OR helium sealed drives.

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Is Submer's Smart Cooling Platform TierIV compatible?

Submer  SmartPods are TierIII compatible (N+1 - redundant pumping and electronics in every CDU) and TierIV can be achieved with and additional CDU (N+N).

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What floor loading capacity is required per SmartPod?

A SmartPodX weighs ~215kg and ~800kg when filled with 650L of SmartCoolant and the IT-Hardware may weigh up to 300kg, so ca. 1100kg spread evenly over a surface area of 1m². A typical raised floor (technical floor) can accommodate 1500kg per m². SmartPodXL fully loaded weighs ca. 2200kg and is spread over 2m².

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How do SmartPods connect to network?

Each CDU has an ethernet port that can be used to connect SmartPods (live and historic sensor data and control) to network (to interface with monitoring, DCIM, BMS or similar) and/or SubmerCloud.

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What is the expected achieved PUE from immersion?

1.03 PUE or less, certified by an independent third party. Also the fact that fans are either removed or disabled saves a further 15-25% on top.

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How much water is required to interface with the heat exchanger?

Water is only required to fill the closed secondary cooling loop once during installation.

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Do I need to use a chiller for the secondary cooling loop?

Because of higher setpoints, one can take advantage of ambient air temperature and dry coolers to perform secondary cooling without the use of chillers or compressors.

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Is there any risk of a ‘mess’ created by spills and leaks?

Submer's coolant never leaves the SmartPod (tank) and uses no-leak quick connects and remote shutoff valves to ensure water can never leak in to the DC. Technicians are taught procedures to ensure proper handling (trays, maintenance rails etc).

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How do operators manage the immersion solution? Does the staff need to be more trained compared to an air cooling system?

The amount of additional training needed is minimal. The same staff manage both the immersion cooling and air cooling systems.

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Is the fluid flammable? What is its flashpoint?

No, the fluid is not flammable and has a very high flashpoint (159º).

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Does the SmartPod have a warranty?

Yes, we offer a standard 2-years warranty for a SmartPod, according to CE.

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What happens if the power shuts down, but the servers have a backup and keep on working?

With SmartPod you can keep servers cooled up to 15minutes in case of electricity failure. It will give you enough time to intervene.

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Is there any oxidation or corrosion of HW is taking place?

No. Corrosion is an electrochemical reaction which cannot occur in dielectric fluids. In fact, our SmartCoolant protects against corrosion and oxidation.

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Can SmartCoolant be recycled?

Yes. As it is made from food-grade components, it is an extremely pure fluid which can be sold to oil recyclers at the end of its useful life in the SmartPod.

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How do we dispose it at the end of its life?

Arrange for recycling or disposal with relevant authorities in your area. Do not discharge into sewerage or public waters.

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Is the SmartCoolant Signle-phase or Two-phase?

SmartCoolant is a single phase fluid, which means that it cools servers by convection and does not evaporate.

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Is SmartCoolant sold separately?

No. Submer offers SmartPod and SmartCoolant as a whole Immersion Cooling Solution and they are not sold separately.

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Do you reuse the heat?

Currently we are working on heat reuse projects with some universities. We are interested in partnering up with companies involved in such projects.

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What is the lifespan of the SmartPod?

The SmartPod will still have a high residual value when the liquid will reach the end of its lifecycle (10 years). Depreciation of the SmartPod is approximately 10 years.

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Does Submer provide IT Hardware?

Yes, we offer immersion ready servers through our partners. But this is optional and customers can choose their preferred OEM.

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